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Session 2



Every chord has a related scale with which it 'fits' harmonically. This is an important principle for all musicians who wish to develop the art of improvisation. Here are some examples of common related scales and chords.
In each example, click on the mauscript to hear the sound.

IONIAN MODE
MAJOR CHORDS
DORIAN MODE
MINOR CHORDS
MIXOLYDIAN MODE
DOMINANT 7th. CHORDS
LOCRIAN MODE
HALF DIMINISHED CHORDS
WHOLE TONE SCALE
DOMINANT 7th. (b5)
PENTATONIC
MAJOR or MINOR (Starting on the third)
BLUES SCALE
DOMINANT 7th.

The Whole Tone scale has the form, T,T,T,T,T,T.

Pentatonic scale has the form, T.-3.T.T.-3. (-3 = A MINOR THIRD)

The Blues scale has the form, -3,T,H,H,-3,T.

The Half Diminished chord is a diminished triad + a dominant 7th.

music score diag
C half-diminished = Cm7(b5) = C


Click here to download a Scale Chart which you may use for practice and reference.


The tune DO-RE-ME which was referred to in Session 1, provides a good illustration of the relation between scales and chords.

Chord = C (related scale = C major or Ionian mode of C)

Chord = G7 (related scale = Mixolydian mode of C major)

Exercise:- Write out the rest of the tune in manuscript and indicate the chords and related scales.

It is often useful to write chords in a tabular form. Here are suggested chords for Doh-re-me.

C       C     C    C    G7    G7    G7    G7      
C    C C C G7    G7 G7 G7
C    C7    F    F D7    D7 G    G
E7    E7 Am    C7    F       Dm7 G7       C       C

Exercise:- If possible form a group with drums, bass, guitar or piano, trumpet or any other solo instrument. Start with drums playing two beats per bar. Then add the bass, playing one beat in the bar (the root of the chord), Then add guitar or piano playing chords only, then add a solo instrument playing the tune. Then experiment with improvisations, each instrument taking a solo chorus. For continuous repetitions of the chord sequence, use G7 in the last bar as a 'turnaround). Make sure that the rhythm remains constant throughout.

When it is mutually agreed that the improvisations have exploited the tune sufficiently, the last chorus can be a return to the tune on the trumpet or other solo instrument.

Voicing of Chords.

This is particularly important for piano and keyboard players. A more musical effect is obtained by spreading chords out rather than playing them in their root position.

SATIN DOLL

Here is the tune by the famous Duke Ellington. Click on the manuscript to hear the music.

Learn the tune so that you can play it without the 'dots' and then use the following chords in performance.

Dm7    G7 Dm7    G7 Em7    A7 Em7    A7 D7 Db7 C       A7      
Dm7    G7 Dm7    G7 Em7    A7 Em7    A7 D7 Db7 C C
Gm7    C7 Gm7    C7 Fmaj7 Fmaj7 Am7    D7
Am7    D7
Dm7 G7
Dm7    G7 Dm7    G7 Em7    A7 Em7    A7 D7 Db7 C A7

The last bar (A7) is called a 'turnaround' as it leads back into the opening Dm7.
Repeat the practice routine described as for 'doh-ray-me'. (In the above C is played as Cmaj7 - this is a common assumption.)

For practice routines in preparation for session 3, repeat those for
session 1 and play the related scales of Satin Doll following the chord sequence. Commit the chord sequence to memory. Be adventurous with improvisations. There are no mistakes in jazz, only more or less interesting sounds!



Session 3
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